WEB222 - Week 1


The web is the most ubiquitous computing platform in the world. As a developer, learning the web takes time. There are hundreds of languages, libraries, frameworks, and tools to be learned, some old, some built yesterday, and all being mixed together at once.

The fundamental unit of the web is the hyperlink–the web is interconnected. These weekly notes provide numerous links to external resources, books, blogs, and sample code. To get good at the web, you need to be curious and you need to go exploring, you need to try things.

Make sure you follow the links below as you read, and begin to create your own web of knowledge and experience. No one resource can begin to cover the breadth and depth of web development.

Question: do I need to read the weekly notes? How about all the many links to external resources?

Yes, you do need to read the weekly notes. You will be tested on this material. We will discuss it in class, but not cover everything. The external links will help you understand and master the material. You are advised to read some external material, but you don’t need to read all of it. However, make sure you do read Recommended Readings.

Internet Architecture


Application Protocols

The web runs on-top of TCP/IP networks using a number of communication protocols, including:

There are many more as well (SMTP, FTP, POP, IMAP, SSH, etc).

We often use the terms “Web” and “Internet” interchangeably, however, they aren’t the same. Pictured below, Tim Berners-Lee (left), who invented the World Wide Web, and Vint Cert (right), who was one of the main inventors of the Internet:

Tim Berners-Lee (left) invented the web, and Vint Cert (right) invented the internet

The World Wide Web (WWW) runs on top of the Internet using HTTP, and allows us to access web services, request resources (i.e., pages, images), and transmit data between clients and servers. The web is a subset of the Internet.

The web isn’t owned or controlled by any single company, organization, or government. Instead, it is defined as a set of open standards, which everyone building and using the web relies upon. Some examples of these standards include HTML, HTTP, SVG, and many more.

HTTP Requests and Responses

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a stateless, client-server model for formatting requests and responses between computers on the Internet. This means one computer makes a request (the client) to another (the server), and after the response is returned, the connection is closed.

The server listens for requests, and fulfills (or rejects) those requests by returning (or generating) the requested resources, such as images, web pages, videos, or other data.


Web resources are reachable via unique identifiers called a Uniform Resource Locator or URL. Consider the URL for this course’s outline:


A URL contains all the information necessary for a web client (e.g., a browser) to request the resource. In the URL given above we have:

URLs can only contain a limited set of characters, and anything outside that set has to be encoded. This includes things like spaces, non-ASCII characters, Unicode, etc.


A URL describes the location (i.e., server, pathname) and how to interpret (i.e., which protocol) a resource on the Internet. To get the resource, we need to request it by sending a properly formatted HTTP Request to the appropriate server (host):

GET /cgi-bin/subject HTTP/1.1 
Host: www.senecacollege.ca 

Here we do a GET request using HTTP version 1.1 for the resource at the path /cgi-bin/subject on the server named www.senecacollege.ca.

There are various HTTP Verbs we can use other than GET, which allow us to request that resources be returned, created, deleted, updated, etc. The most common include:

We can use a URL in many ways, for example, via the command line using a tool like curl (NOTE: on Windows, use curl.exe):

$ curl https://www.senecacollege.ca/cgi-bin/subject?s1=WEB222

<html lang="en" dir="ltr"
</section> <!-- /.block -->


Upon receiving a request for a URL, the server will respond with an HTTP Response, which includes information about the response, and possibly the resource being requested. Let’s use curl again, but this time ask that it --include the response headers:

$ curl --include https://www.senecacollege.ca/cgi-bin/subject\?s1\=WEB222
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=16070400; includeSubDomains
Date: Wed, 06 Sep 2023 14:31:11 GMT
Content-Length: 17241
Connection: keep-alive

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><!-- InstanceBegin template="/Templates/mainTemplate.dwt" codeOutsideHTMLIsLocked="false" -->

In this case, we see a two-part structure: first a set of Response Headers; then the actual HTML Response Body. The two are separated by a blank line. The headers provide extra metadata about the response, the resource being returned, the server, etc.

HTTP Headers are well defined, and easy to lookup via Google, MDN, or StackOverflow. They follow the key: value format, and can be upper- or lower-case:

name: value

For example, in the response above, we see a number of interesting things:

After these headers we have a blank line (i.e., \n\n), followed by the body of our response: the actual HTML document.

What if we requested a URL that we know doesn’t exist?

$ curl --include https://ict.senecacollege.ca/course/web000

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Date: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 20:25:28 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.29 (Unix) OpenSSL/1.0.2l PHP/5.6.30
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.6.30
Expires: Sun, 19 Nov 1978 05:00:00 GMT
Cache-Control: no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0
Location: https://ict.senecacollege.ca/Course/CourseNotFound?=web000
Content-Length: 0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

This time, instead of a 200 status code, we get 302. This indicates that the resource has moved, and later in the headers we are given a new Location to try. Notice there is no body (not every response will include one).

Let’s try following the suggested redirect URL:

curl -I https://www.senecacollege.ca/cgi-bin/subjec
HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Type: text/html;charset=UTF-8
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=16070400; includeSubDomains
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate
Date: Wed, 06 Sep 2023 14:35:04 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=25B152E3F14082DDB666AEE9BE3B4CA7; Path=/; Secure
Set-Cookie: TS0148d87b=01576d3f8972e643bf2b887be1dd52aa5ea6da872a01d2283959af6601471be59f46727200dd63159112ada83202dee0854fecd43d332679805a76b9d6d9e9bacdf505fd97; Path=/

Now a third response code has been returned, 404 Not Found as well as another HTML page telling us our course couldn’t be located.

There are dozens of response codes, but they fall into a few categories you should learn:

Web Browsers

So far we’ve been communicating with web servers using curl, but a more common tool is a Web Browser.

A good way to think about a browser is as an operating system vs. an application. A web browser provides implementations of the web’s open standards. This means it knows how to communicate HTTP, DNS and other protocols over the network in order to request resources via URLs. It also contains parsers for the web’s programming languages, and knows how to render, execute, and lay-out web content for use by a user. Browsers also contain lots of security features, and allow users to download and run untrusted code (i.e., code from a random server on the Internet), without fear of infecting their computers.

Some of the the largest software companies and vendors in the world all have their own browsers:

There are hundreds more, and thousands of different OS and version combinations. There are good stats on usage info for desktop and mobile, but no one company or browser controls the entire web.

As a web developer, you can’t ever know for sure which browser your users will have. This means you have to test your web applications in different browsers and on different platforms in order to make sure the experience is good for as many people as possible.

The web is also constantly evolving, as new standards are written, APIs and features added to the web platform, and older technologies retired. A good way to stay on top of what does and doesn’t work in a particular browser is to use https://caniuse.com/. This is a service that keeps track of web platform features, and which browsers do and don’t implement it.

For example, you can look at the URL() API, used to work with URLs in JavaScript: https://caniuse.com/#feat=url. Notice that it’s widely supported (green) in most browsers (89.69% at the time of writing), but not supported (red) in some older browsers like Internet Explorer.

Because the web is so big, so complicated, so old, and used by so many people for so many different and competing things, it’s common for things to break, for there to be bugs, and for you to have to adapt your code to work in interesting ways. The good news is, it means there are lots of jobs for web developers to make sure it all keeps working.

Uniqueness of the Web as a Platform

We’ve been discussing HTTP as a way to request URLs be transferred between clients and servers. The web is globally distributed set of

The web can be read-only. The web can also be interactive (video games), editable (wikis), personal (blog), and productive (e-commerce).

The web is linkable, which makes it something that can be indexed, searched, navigated, and connected. The web gets more valuable as its connections grow: just look at all the other pages and resources this page links to itself!

The web allows users to access and run remote applications without needing to install new software. The deployment model of the web is HTTP. Compare that to traditional software that has to be manually installed on every computer that needs to run it. The same is true with mobile phones and apps in the various app stores. On the web, updates get installed every time you open a URL.

Question: how many mobile or desktop apps did you install today vs. how many websites did you visit?

The web works on every computing platform. You can access and use the web on desktop and mobile computers, on TVs and smartwatches, on Windows and Mac, in e-Readers and video game consoles. The web works everywhere, and learning how to develop software for the web extends your reach into all those platforms.

Front-End Web Development: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript, and friends

When we talk about programming for the web in a browser, we often refer to this as Front-End Web Development. This is in contrast to server-side, or Back-End Development. In this course we will be focused on the front-end, leaving back-end for subsequent courses.

The modern web, and modern web browsers, are incredibly powerful. What was once possible only on native operating systems can now be done within browsers using only web technologies (cf. running Windows 2000 or Doom 3 in a browser window!)

The set of front-end technologies that make this possible, and are commonly referred to as the Web Platform, include:

In addition to these primary technologies, an increasingly important set of secondary, or third-party technologies are also in play:

The front-end web stack is also increasingly being used to build software outside the browser, both on desktop and mobile using things like Electron and Progressive Web Apps (PWA). Visual Studio Code, for example, is written using web technologies and runs on Electron, which is one of the reasons it works across so many platforms. You can also run it entirely in the browser: vscode.dev.

Introduction to JavaScript

The first front-end web technology we will learn is JavaScript. JavaScript (often shortened to JS) is a lightweight, interpreted or JIT (i.e., Just In Time) compiled language meant to be embedded in host environments, for example, web browsers.

JavaScript looks similar to C/C++ or Java in some of its syntax, but is quite different in philosophy; it is more closely related to Scheme than C. For example, JavaScript is a dynamic scripting language supporting multiple programming styles, from object-oriented to imperative to functional.

JavaScript is one of, if not the most popular programming languages in the world, and has been for many years. Learning JavaScript well will be a tremendous asset to any software developer, since so much of the software we use is built using JS.

JavaScript’s many versions: JavaScript is an evolving language, and you’ll hear it referred to by a number of names, including: ECMAScript (or ES), ES5, ES6, ES2015, ES2017, …, ES2021, ES2022, etc. ECMA is the European Computer Manufacturers Association, which is the standards body responsible for the JS language. As the standard evolves, the specification goes through different versions, adding or changing features and syntax. In this course we will primarily focus on ECMAScript 6 (ES6) and newer versions, which all browsers support. We will also sometimes use new features of the language, which most browsers support. Language feature support across browsers is maintained in this table.

JavaScript Resources

Throughout the coming weeks, we’ll make use of a number of important online resources. They are listed here so you can make yourself aware of them, and begin to explore on your own. All programmers, no matter how experienced, have to return to these documents on a routine basis, so it’s good to know about them.

JavaScript Environments

Unlike C, which is compiled to machine code, JavaScript is meant to be run within a host environment. There are many possible environments, but we will focus on the following:

If you haven’t done so already, you should install all of the above.

JavaScript Engines

JavaScript is parsed, executed, and managed (i.e., memory, garbage collection, etc) by an engine written in C/C++. There are a number of JavaScript engines available, the most common of which are:

These engines, much like car engines, are meant to be used within a larger context. We will encounter them indirectly via web browsers and in node.js.

It’s not important to understand a lot about each of these engines at this point, other than to be aware that each has its own implementation of the ECMAScript standards, its own performance characteristics (i.e., some are faster at certain things), as well as its own set of bugs.

Running JavaScript Programs

JavaScript statements can be stored in an external file with a .js file extension, or embedded within HTML code via the HTML <script> element. As a developer, you also have a number of options for writing and executing JavaScript statements or files:

  1. From the command line via node.js. You’ll learn more about node.js in subsequent courses, but we’ll also use it sometimes in this course to quickly try test JavaScript expressions, and to run JavaScript programs outside the browser.

  2. Using Firefox’s Developer Tools, and in particular the Web Console, JavaScript Debugger, and Scratchpad.

  3. Using Chrome’s DevTools, and in particular the Console and Sources Debugger

  4. Finally, we’ll eventually write JavaScript that connects with HTML and CSS to create dynamic web pages and applications.

Take some time to install and familiarize yourself with all of the methods listed above.

JavaScript Syntax

Recommend Readings

We will spend a month learning JavaScript, and there is no one best way to do it. The more you read and experiment the better. The following chapters/pages give a good overview:

Important Ideas

// This is a single line comment. NOTE: the space between the // and first letter.

 This is a multi-line comment,
 and can be as long as you need.
// This is poorly indented, and needs more whitespace
function add(a,b ){
        return a;
}else {
return a+b;        

// This is much more readable due to the use of whitespace
function add(a, b) {
    if(!b) {
        return a; 
    } else {
        return a + b;

JavaScript version note: JavaScript also supports the var and const keywords for variable declaration. We will primarily use let in this course, but be aware of var and const as well, which other developers will use.

let year;
let seasonName = "Fall";

// Referring to and using syntax:
year = 2023;
console.log(seasonName, year);

NOTE: If you forget to use the let keyword, JavaScript will still allow you to use a variable, and simply create a global variable. We often refer to this as “leaking a global,” and it should always be avoided:

let a = 6;      // GOOD: a is declared with let
b = 7;          // BAD: b is used without declaration, and is now a global
Declaration Type Value
let s1 = "some text"; String "some text"
let s2 = 'some text'; String "some text"
let s3 = '172'; String "172"
let s4 = '172' + 4; String "1724" (concatenation vs. addition)
let n1 = 172; Number 172 (integer)
let n2 = 172.45; Number 172.45 (double-precision float)
let n3 = 9007199254740993n; BigInt 9007199254740993n (integer)
let b1 = true; Boolean true
let b2 = false; Boolean false
let b3 = !b2; Boolean true
let s = Symbol("Sym"); symbol Symbol(Sym)
let c; undefined undefined
let d = null; object null

Consider a simple program from your C course, and how it would look in JavaScript

 // Area of a Circle, based on https://scs.senecac.on.ca/~btp100/pages/content/input.html
 // area.c

 #include <stdio.h>               // for printf

 int main(void)
    const float pi = 3.14159f;   // pi is a constant float 
    float radius = 4.2;          // radius is a float
    float area;                  // area is a float

    area = pi * radius * radius; // calculate area from radius

    printf("Area = %f\n", area); // copy area to standard output

    return 0;

Now the same program in JavaScript:

const pi = 3.14159;                       // pi is a Number 
let radius = 4.2;                         // radius is a Number
let area;                                 // area is (currently) undefined

area = pi * radius * radius;              // calculate area from radius

console.log("Area = " + area );           // print area to the console

We could also have written it like this, using Math.PI, which we’ll learn about later:

let radius = 4.2;                       // radius is a Number
let area = Math.PI * radius * radius;   // calculate area from radius

console.log("Area", area);              // print area to the console
Operator Operation Example
+ Addition of Numbers 3 + 4
+ Concatenation of Strings "Hello " + "World"
- Subtraction of Numbers x - y
* Multiplication of Numbers 3 * n
/ Division of Numbers 2 / 4
% Modulo 7 % 3 (gives 1 remainder)
++ Post/Pre Increment x++, ++x
-- Post/Pre Decrement x--, --x
= Assignment a = 6
+= Assignment with addition a += 7 same as a = a + 7. Can be used to join Strings too
-= Assignment with subtraction a -= 7 same as a = a - 7
*= Assignment with multiplication a *= 7 same as a = a * 7
/= Assignment with division a /= 7 same as a = a / 7
&& Logical AND if(x > 3 && x < 10) both must be true
() Call/Create () invokes a function, f() means invoke/call function stored in variable f
|| Logical OR if(x === 3 || x === 10) only one must be true
| Bitwise OR 3.1345|0 gives 3 as an integer
! Logical NOT if(!(x === 2)) negates an expression
== Equal 1 == 1 but also 1 == "1" due to type coercion
=== Strict Equal 1 === 1 but 1 === "1" is not true due to types. Prefer ===
!= Not Equal 1 != 2, with type coercion
!== Strict Not Equal 1 !== "1". Prefer !==
> Greater Than 7 > 3
>= Greater Than Or Equal 7 >=7 and 7 >= 3
< Less Than 3 < 10
<= Less Than Or Equal 3 < 10 and 3 <=3
typeof Type Of typeof "Hello" gives 'string', typeof 6 gives 'number'
cond ? a : b Ternary status = (age >= 18) ? 'adult' : 'minor';

JavaScript version note: you may encounter => in JavaScript code, which looks very similar to <= or >=. If you see => it is an arrow function, which is new ES6 syntax for declaring a function expression. We will slowly introduce this syntax, especially in later courses.

let a;             // undefined
a = 6;             // 6, Number
a++;               // 7, Number
a--;               // 6, Number
a += 3;            // 9, Number
a = "Value=" + a;  // "Value=9", String
a = !!a;           // true, Boolean
a = null;          // null
let a = 10 / 2;                       // arithmetic expression
let b = !(10 / 2);                    // logical expression evaluates to false
let c = "10 " + "/" + " 2";           // string, evaluates to "10 / 2"
let f = function() { return 10 / 2;}; // function expression, f can now be called via the () operator
let d = f();                          // f() evaluates to 10/2, or the Number 5
 * 1. Sequence example: each statement is executed one after the other
let a = 3;
let b = 6;
let c = a + b;

 * 2. Conditional examples: a decision is made based on the evaluation of an expression,
 * and a code path (or branch) taken.
let grade;
let mark = 86;

if (mark >= 90) {
    grade = 'A+';
} else if (mark >= 80) {
    grade = 'A';
} else if (mark >= 70) {
    grade = 'B';
} else if (mark >= 60) {
    grade = 'C';
} else if (mark >= 50) {
    grade = 'D';
} else { 

switch(grade) {
    case 'A+':
        // do these steps if grade is A+
    case 'A':
        // do these steps if grade is A
    case 'B':
        // do these steps if grade is B
    case 'C':
        // do these steps if grade is C
    case 'D':
        // do these steps if grade is D
        // do these steps in any other case

 * 3. Looping example: a set of statements are repeated

let total = 0;
for(let i = 1; i < 11; i++) {
    total += i;
    console.log("i", i, "total", total);

 * 4. Transfer example: a set of statements are repeated

function add(a, b) {        // declaring the add function
    if(!b) {                // check if the b argument exists/has a value
        return a;           // if not, simply return the value of argument a
    return a + b;           // otherwise, return the two arguments added together

let total;
total = add(56);            // invoking the add function with a single argument
total = add(total, 92);     // invoking the add function with two arguments

Practice Exercises

Try to solve each of the following using JavaScript. If you need to print something, use console.log(), which will print the argument(s) you give it.

  1. Create a variable label and assign it the value "senecacollege". Create another variable tld and assign it "ca". Create a third variable domainName that combines label and tld to produce the value "senecacollege.ca".
  2. Create a variable isSeneca and assign it a boolean value (true or false) depending on whether or not domainName is equal to "senecacollege.ca". HINT: use === and don’t write true or false directly.
  3. Create a variable isNotSeneca and assign it the inverse boolean value of isSeneca. HINT: if isSeneca is true, isNotSeneca should be false.
  4. Create four variables byte1, byte2, byte3, byte4, and assign each of these a value in the range 0-255.
  5. Convert byte1 to a String using .toString(), and console.log() the result. What happens if you use toString(2) or toString(16) instead?
  6. Create a variable ipAddress and assign it the value of combining your four byteN variables together, separated by ".". For example: "".
  7. Create a variable ipInt and assign it the integer value of bit-shifting (<<) and adding your byteN variables. HINT: your ipInt will contain 32 bits, the first byte needs to be shifted 24 bit positions (<< 24) so it occupies 32-25, the second shifted 16, the third 8.
  8. Create a variable ipBinary that contains the binary representation of the ipInt value. HINT: use .toString(2) to display the number with 1 and 0 only.
  9. Create a variable statusCode, and assign it the value for the “I’m a teapot” HTTP status code. HINT: see https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Status
  10. Write an If statement that checks to see if your statusCode is a 4xx client error. HINT: use the <, >, >=, and/or <= operators to test the value
  11. Write a switch statement that checks your statusCode for all possible 1xx information responses. In each case, you should console.log() the response text associated with the status code, or "unknown information response" if the status code is not known.
  12. Write a function is2xx(status) which takes a status code status (e.g., 200) and returns true if the status code is a valid 2xx code.
  13. Create a variable studentName and assign your name. Create another variable studentAge and assign it your age. Use console.log() to print out a sentence that includes both variables, like "Alice is 20 years old.".
  14. Create a variable isEven and assign it a boolean value (true or false) depending on whether a given number num is even or not. HINT: use the modulus operator %.
  15. Create a variable isOdd and assign it the inverse boolean value of isEven. HINT: if isEven is true, isOdd should be false.
  16. Create a variable radius and assign it a value of 10. Calculate the area of a circle with this radius and assign the result to a variable area. HINT: use Math.PI and the formula area = πr^2.
  17. Create a variable temperatureInCelsius and assign it a value. Convert this temperature to Fahrenheit and assign the result to a variable temperatureInFahrenheit. HINT: use the formula F = C * 9/5 + 32.
  18. Create a variable heightInFeet and assign it a value. Convert this height to meters and assign the result to a variable heightInMeters. HINT: use the conversion factor 1 foot = 0.3048 meters.
  19. Create a variable seconds and assign it a value. Convert this time to minutes and seconds (e.g., 90 seconds becomes 1 minute and 30 seconds) and assign the result to two variables minutes and remainingSeconds.
  20. Create a variable score and assign it a value. Write an if statement that checks if the score is an A (90-100), B (80-89), C (70-79), D (60-69), or F (below 60) and assigns the result to a variable grade.
  21. Write a switch statement that checks the value of a variable day and console.log()s whether it is a weekday or weekend. HINT: day can be a value from 1 (Monday) to 7 (Sunday).
  22. Write a function isPositive(num) which takes a number num and returns true if the number is positive and false otherwise.
  23. Write a function isLeapYear(year) which takes a year year and returns true if the year is a leap year and false otherwise. HINT: a leap year is divisible by 4, but not by 100, unless it is also divisible by 400.
  24. Write a function getDayOfWeek(day) which takes a number day (from 1 to 7) and returns the day of the week as a string (e.g., “Monday”).
  25. Write a function getFullName(firstName, lastName) which takes two strings firstName and lastName and returns the full name as a single string.
  26. Write a function getCircleArea(radius) which takes a number radius and returns the area of a circle with that radius.
  27. Write a function getHypotenuse(a, b) which takes two numbers a and b (the lengths of the two sides of a right triangle) and returns the length of the hypotenuse. HINT: use the Pythagorean theorem and Math.sqrt() to calculate the square root.

After you try writing these yourself, take a look at a possible solution.